There are many foreign words used readily in the English language that many people understand. Adios, siesta, fiesta, faux pas, and ciao are all examples of this. When it comes to Japanese words understood by non-Japanese speaking people, I think arigato, sayonara and sensei are top on the list. Sensei is typically translated as teacher in English but its meaning goes further than what English speakers think of as "teacher."
For example, in Japan, sensei is not limited to only school teachers but is a title used for doctors and lawyers as well. It's an honorific title used for people in a high position that often educate in one way or another.
Every month I go to my favorite flea market in Osaka and it's there where I often find and sometimes buy some of the materials I use in my art. This artwork here is one such example. The envelope on the left is addressed to a Yamada Sensei. Yamada is a common family name in Japanese. I'm not quite sure what kind of sensei Mr. Yamada was but after checking the letters inside the envelopes it appears that he was a clergyman of sorts and was often exchanging letters, postcards and Christmas cards with a person in the United States. I have several letters and these here date back to 1956